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Mittwoch, 14. September 2016          10:00 bis 17:00 Uhr

 Mineral Resources / short course

Modelling Spatial Variability in Complex Deposits / Modellierung der räumlichen Variabilität in komplexen Lagerstätten (Seminar)

Referenten: René Prissang, FU Berlin, EurGeol. Dr. Bernd Schürmann, AMSTRA

A geostatistical structure analysis comprises the task of setting up mathematical models describing the spatial variabilities of ore grades, contaminant concentrations, or petrophysical rock properties. In complex deposits, the respective models may consist of combinations of variograms of different types exhibiting individual range and sill anisotropies. Based on data from well-researched regions, it was possible to attribute variogram types to specific geological processes and to regard the orientations of anisotropy ellipsoids as indicators for paleo-directions. This renders it possible to relate the results of structural analyses directly to the deposit geology. Strategies for assessing highly complex models will be presented.

Mineralogical Evaluation of Mineral Resources and Products (Seminar)

Referenten: Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Bernhardt, Ruhr Universität Bochum,

                    Dr. Rainer Lehne, Lehne & Associates

Part 1: Mineralogie als entscheidender Faktor bei der Bewertung und Gewinnung von mineralischen Rohstoffen / Mineralogy as a decisive factor in the evaluation and exploitation of mineral resources. (Lehne)

The seminar deals with mineralogical factors that determine mineral resource development, mineral beneficiation and resulting mineral products. It defines the term geometallurgy by presenting examples and case histories from base metal, gold and iron projects to illustrate technical and economic implications and problems that originate from the mineralogical nature of ores. The given examples support the importance of a continuous mineralogical supervision during the whole life cycle of a mineral resource project from early stage determination of mineralogical parameters to optimisation of metallurgical processes and quality control during later production. Only a close cooperation between geologists, mineralogists, mine planners, metallurgists and economists can cope with the challenges of complex mineral resources and warrant their optimum recovery.

Part 2: Auflichtmikroskopie und weitere Methoden zur Charakterisierung von Erzmineralien und ihren Verwachsungen (Bernhardt) / Ore microscopy and other methods for charcterization of ore minerals and their intergrowth. (Bernhardt)

For any kind of investigation of ore deposits with respect to purely scientific-genetic questions, commercial evaluation, mining, ore dressing and smelting it is essential to get exact knowledge about the mineral contents of the ore and to know the mineral intergrowths.

A number of investigation methods for this purpose are available today, which will be covered:

-        Reflected Light Microscopy using common properties and the extensions for spectral reflectance measurements in visible light or even additionally in the near infrared including digital imaging as well as the determination of microindentation hardness.

-        The electron beam methods: scanning microscope, microprobe and quemscan using X-rays and backscattered electrons for chemical analyses and imaging.

-        To some extend Raman-spectroscopy including mapping and X-ray diffraction.

In any case good polished samples are needed that may be used for several methods. Today the trend is towards the “complicated methods”. Therefore the respective reasonable use is discussed.

Im Anschluss sind die Teilnehmer zu einer Besichtigung des Museums Sicilia-Schacht der stillgelegten Grube Meggen mit anschließendem Grillen und Umtrunk eingeladen.


Donnerstag, 15. September 2016                9:00 – 17:00 Uhr

 Conference Day Mineral Commodities

Dale Schilling / Boston Consulting Group

Tackling the Crisis in Minerals Exploration

Mineral exploration is in crisis. Despite a ten-fold increase in spending between 2002 and 2012 and huge technological advances, the number of discoveries has remained flat. Why is the industry falling behind? Could the causes of the exploration drought be more micro-level: a matter of leadership, management, talent, or even culture? And what should be done now that budgets have been halved over the past two years? Drawing on lessons from exploration 'legends' who discovered iconic deposits such as Oyu Tolgoi, Olympic Dam and Escondida, this presentation provides real-world lessons and guidance in four areas that govern exploration success.

Knut Ansgar Hirsch & Christian Storck / DMT

Introduction of the Raw Materials Initiative for Germany (and Europe). An Initiative to Enhance the Image of the Raw Materials Sector and Create Greater Scope for Action.

Raw material extraction is meeting with resistance in Germany and Europe. The critical attitude towards “exploitation of Mother Earth” and mistrust with regard to impacts from drilling and mining culminate in polemical debates. As a result, there is a sense of opposition among the population towards the raw materials industry. Meanwhile, it is nearly impossible to break this attitude with objective arguments. In view of the prevailing opinion, political debates are characterised by a defensive position or prevented entirely. This damages Germany’s position with respect to industrial and research activities, as well as the raw materials industry and the professions involved.

This presentation will show how a communication campaign can help to achieve public understanding to create a solid basis for far-sighted economic policy and more effective work among the lobbies and associations.

EurGeol. Dr. Bernd Schürmann  / AMSTRA & Rene Prissang / FU Berlin

Operative Deposit Modelling – A Prerequisite for “Real-Time-Mining”

Operative deposit modelling is a technique that uses production data from a mine to run daily updates of the grade and quality model. Its main objective is to provide geologists and mine planners with rolling forecasts. A respective software package has to blend seamlessly into a mine’s existing planning procedures. It must be fault tolerant, reliable, and highly automated. These features are indispensable for applications in future automated mining environments. Such a system has been conceived and developed at Free University of Berlin using the Linear Octree Based Property Modelling System. An overview of the system’s functionality will be given and potential future applications will be outlined.

Klaus Weidner / RHI AG

Breitenau Magnesite Mine - The First 20 Years of Operative Deposit Modelling

At the Breitenau magnesite mine magnesite and dolomite are extracted since a century. In the underground operation post-pillar mining and sublevel stoping are employed. Ten distinct quality classes of raw magnesite have to be distinguished depending on the SiO2, CaO, and Fe2O3 content. The material is used to produce 15 classes of semi finished and finished refractory products in an adjacent magnesite plant. Since twenty years grade control as well as long, medium and short-term planning rely successfully on an Operative Deposit Modelling system. This renders it possible to update the grade model on a daily basis using production data. An account on the experiences with the system and the benefits for the mining operation is given.

EurGeol. Johann Gotsis / SST Aachen

Grade Reconciliation Based on 3D Models and Production Data

Geological 3D models of mineral reserves are usually based on initial exploration data like drillholes. Mine production data like blasthole assays allow the reconciliation of the model with a much higher resolution. The thus enhanced predictability of deposit features provides significant surplus value in short and midterm mine planning.

David Tutton / DAT Mine Consulting

Fiscal and Cost Impact on Mining Projects in Different Countries

The impact of variations in cost drivers and fiscal regimes and their influence on mineral resources is examined with examples from the open pit gold and copper industries. Examples are provided from six countries on four continents with significant differences in labour, energy, productivity and tax regimes. Operating costs are estimated based on a consumption curve approach and mineral inventory estimates and comparative project economics are presented.

Dr. Duncan Large

Exploration and Discovery in the Timok Magmatic Complex, Serbia

The Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) comprises the Serbian sector of the Tethyan arc of Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism extending from Romania, through eastern Serbia (TMC) and into central Bulgaria. The Bor and Majdenpek porphyry systems contribute to an estimated historical production of approximately 6 million tonnes of copper and 9.65 million ounces gold.

The discovery history of the Čukaru Peki deposit will be presented. An initial inferred resource estimate of 65.3 Mt @ 2.6% copper and 1.5 g/t gold, including 6.8 Mt @ 9.6% copper and 5.9 g/t gold was announced in early 2014. The mineralogy and alteration of this deposit are typical of an epithermal high sulphidation system. Porphyry style mineralization has been intersected at depth in a number of holes, but is not included in the resource estimate.

EurGeol. Dr. Eckhard Walcher  / Geobüro Walcher

Goldexploration in Neualbenreuth / Bavaria

In the eastern Bavarian crystalline complex a gold deposits near the Czech border in Neualbenreuth is known and it has been operated to the 16th century as an underground mine. There is documented evidence of at least 7 shafts up to 30 m deep which also represents about the drainage level of groundwater.

The concession holders started an exploration program since 2012 with the classical works such as stream sediment sampling, soil samples, trenching and core drillings.

According to previous knowledge the mineralization is structurally bound to quartz vein swarms and not stratabound how meantime suspected. It extends also well below the oxidation depth into the unweathered rock as evidenced by drill holes. The rocks consist of quartzite and phyllitic mica schist, the Waldsassener Shale (Ordovician), which are altered in some areas up to 30 m deep in sands and clays. However the alteration appears to have no direct connection with the mineralization. There is a striking correlation between gold and arsenic with isolated arsenopyrite tubes as it was described in papers of the 1930s. On the other hand, the Waldsassener shale has generally a remarkably high background value for As> 50 ppm.

In works of Czech colleagues the Bohemian mass is described by structure-bound As-Au mineralization from the time of the Upper Carboniferous. Probably Neualbenreuth is part in this system.

EurGeol. Dr. Thomas Krassmann / Bad Windsheim

Oman - Geology, Mining and Metallic Resources


Freitag, 16. September 2016                     9:00 – 16:00 Uhr

 Conference Day Water and Geothermal Energy

EurGeol. Dr. Isabel Fernandez / EFG

KINDRA Project: classification and inventory of groundwater research and knowledge in Europe

Hydrogeology-related research activities cover a wide spectrum of research areas at EU and national levels, but they are widespread into several projects, plans, actions, fragmented into wider programs generally related to water, environment or ecology. At the same time, the management of groundwater brings additional challenges to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Groundwater Directive (GWD). An accurate assessment of the state of the art in hydrogeology research and knowledge is the main aim of the KINDRA project (Knowledge Inventory for hydrogeology research, Grant Agreement 642047,, funded by the European Commission’s HORIZON2020 Framework Programme.


Dr. Walter Lenz / HG Büro für Hydrogeologie und Umwelt GmbH

Some Experiences in the Stress Field of Mining and Groundwater Management

In many locations there´s a conflict between (sub-)surface mining and the necessary handling of groundwater around the sites with other interests in groundwater management (supply of drinking water, discharge in rivers, conservation of wetlands etc.). The presentation shows some examples how these conflicts are usually dealed with in Germany.

Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Kümpel

Production of Shale Gas and Geothermal Energy - Pros and Cons of Fracking

Although routinely used in Germany and elsewhere for decades, fracking technology has become controversial around 2011 here. Why is the public so sceptic about hydraulic fracturing, what are the real risks, and why is the felt risk so high? Among other reasons people tend to believe that ground water at greater depths is clean and worth to be protected, which is not the case. Some people are sceptic about the chemical additives in fracking fluids and have concerns regarding the integrity of bore wells. The biggest challenge nowadays appears to be to correct false or dishonest sayings and to regain acceptability.

Ernst-G. Weiß / Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Abt. 6 Bergbau und Energie in NRW

Geothermal Energy - Status, Evaluation, Review and Permissions Practice

Part 1: Natural Resource Geothermal Energy – Description of the Status, Review and Outlook (Wagner)

Part 2: Natural Resource Geothermal Energy – Practice of the Proceeding relating to Permissions in North Rhine-Westphalia (Weiß)

The commodity geothermal energy is a natural resource that falls under the Federal Mining Act (BBerG).Its prospection as well as its extraction is subject to the state regulatory authority. In North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) the Bezirksregierung Arnsberg functions as the responsible mining authority for geothermal projects applying to the Federal Mining Act. Both in near-surface and deep geothermics the mining authority holds important task fields. Because of this responsibility the mining authority wants to work towards the implementation of geothermal energy in the energy turnaround. This presentation describes the current state and gives a forecast on possible risks and potentials concerning near-surface geothermics along with perspectives for deep geothermal projects in NRW. Furthermore it gives an overview of the licensing practice for geothermal activities in NRW.

Kai Olbert / Uni Kiel

Automatic Seismic Processing of Induced (Stimulated) Events in the Geothermal Systems at the Southern Palatinate, Germany

Induced events in geothermal reservoirs represent a chance to learn about the reservoir behavior and characteristics. Prior to the analysis, the waveform data must be processed consistently and accurately to avoid erroneous interpretations.

In the framework of the MAGS2 project an automatic off-line event detection and a phase onset time determination algorithm are applied to induced seismic events in geothermal systems in the Southern Palatinate, Germany.

Shown are automatic detections and cluster interpretations on spatial and temporal characteristics as well as locations of induced events with an interpretation of the localization precision and possible mechanisms.

EurGeol. Dr. Michael Neumann / Sachtleben Bergbau Verwaltungs-GmbH

Heat Mining in the Sicilia Shaft of the Meggen Mine

Mining activities are considered to be continued 25 years after mine closure, not for pyrite-lead-zinc commodities as in the past but for geothermal energy as the new resource. The continuous outflow of warm mine waters (22°C) from the Sicilia shaft over the Erbstollen level (0 m level) is planned to be used for the production of heat energy in industrial and private buildings.

EurGeol. MBA Andreas Hagedorn / Wenden

Real-time Radar Detection of Underground Structures in Front of the Drillhead

The EU-funded project “ORFEUS-Operational Radar For Every drill string Under the Street”, has ended in September 2015. After 3 years of successful cooperation the ORFEUS consortium demonstrated a robust and efficient ground penetrating radar system mounted on the tip of a modified, conventional, commercial Horizontal Directional Drilling rig.

This technology enables a rig operator to detect and avoid unmapped objects in the underground (utilities, boulders, cavities, foundations, etc) up to 1.5 m in front of the drill head - in realtime. This is a major step forward in drill assisting technologies.

Practical testing took place in the Stuttgart area in September 2015. It was demonstrated that the ORFEUS Radar Detection Technology is ready for commercial use.  TRACTO TECHNIK launched in April 2016 the Orfeus technology at the bauma 2016.

Waldemar Müller-Ruhe / H. Anger’s Söhne Bohr- und Brunnenbauges. mbH

Heat for the World – The Earth as Supplier. Geothermal Energy for District Heating in Germany

Realizing the enormous power and energy, flowing from active volcanos, people can imagine the high temperatures coming out of the earth. Temperatures in the range of several thousand degrees. 1 km³ of 200°C hot granite and using only 20°C from this cube will deliver 10 kw(e) electrical power for 20 years.

This corresponds to the amount of around 1 275 000 t of oil to burn, or more than 60 000 trucks. 50% of humans’ energy consumption is for heating or cooling buildings or heating up water. More than 40% of buildings in Germany are older than 40 years and not well-isolated. The paper will present ways and possible solutions for the use of Geothermal Power on wider scales to supply residential quarters, villages, commercial buildings with local green energy on a 24/7 basis.

Dr. Claus Heske / International Geothermal Office

Deep Geothermal Energy in Germany – What did we already achieve and how could future developments look like?

Germany occupies the fifth rank regarding the installed capacity for the production of heat making use of geothermal energy with approx. 4,2 GW. Therefrom deep geothermal energy provides with heating stations 281 MW. If we take a look at the global electricity generation and compare it with the one of Germany we will immediately understand why Germany only occupies with 38 MW one of the last ranks. Experts assume a rise in the use of geothermal energy for the future. The German Association of renewable energy predicts an increase within the electricity generation from 25 GWh in 2013 towards an annual boost till 2020 of 3750 GWh. If we want the energy transition and therefore as well the heat transition to work geothermal energy has to interact with other renewable energies and step by step undertake the heat and electrical power supply which is currently dominated by fossil fuels and nuclear powers.

Michael Funke / Dibauco

Geothermal Energy – Solutions in Rail Infrastructure

The content of the lecture will be geothermal solutions in the infrastructure systems, with a focus on the railway infrastructure. One focus is a point heating system for all rail-guided transport systems. The system works with the CO2 – neutral geothermal energy and the system operates for tram systems as well as for railway systems.

Another significant focus is a rail platform heating system. The system allows cooling in summertime and heating in wintertime. The lecture will give an overview of references with this technology in Germany and Russia.

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